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Linda Titus-Ernstoff, Kathleen M. Egan, Polly A. Newcomb, John A. Baron, Meir Stampfer, E. Robert Greenberg, Bernard F. There is considerable interest in the possibility of an infectious etiology for human breast cancer. Although studies have shown that certain strains of mice transmit mammary tumor virus via breast milk, few epidemiologic studies have addressed this topic in humans.
Methods: We evaluated the relationship between having been breast-fed as an infant and breast cancer risk among women who participated in a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer in women aged 50 years or more. Information on epideminlogic risk factors was obtained through telephone interview. We used multiple logistic regression to assess having been breast-fed and maternal history of breast cancer in relation to breast cancer occurrence both in premenopausal women case women; control women and in postmenopausal women case women; control women.
In addition, breast cancer risk was not increased by having been breast-fed by a mother who later developed breast cancer. Conclusion: Our results do not support the hypothesis that a transmissible agent in breast milk increases breast cancer risk. Because premenopausal women were not well represented in our study population, our findings with regard to this group may not be generalizable and should be viewed with caution.
Initial interest in a possible viral etiology for human breast cancer was generated by studies showing that mammary cancer in certain strains of mice can be caused by a tumor virus transmitted via breast milk 1. Early clinical investigators 2 — 4 speculated that viral transmission through breast-feeding might also account for the elevated risk observed among women whose mothers had developed breast cancer.
Although comprising small numbers of case women, their hospital-based studies provided no evidence of an association. Furthermore, international and temporal patterns are inconsistent with viral transmission through breast milk. Breast cancer rates are low in countries where breast-feeding is common 5 , 6 ; in western countries, breast cancer rates have increased over a time when breast-feeding has declined 5 , 6. Nevertheless, recent studies have produced evidence of viral DNA 7 and viral antigen 8 in human breast cancer tissues, and there is currently substantial interest in a possible viral etiology for human breast cancer 9 , Although a few casecontrol studies have examined the relationship between exposure to breast milk in infancy and adult breast cancer risk 11 — 15 , none have reported whether risk was increased by having been breast-fed by a mother who later developed breast cancer.